The Object-Oriented Paradigm
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that revolves around the concept of "objects." These objects encapsulate data (attributes) and behavior (methods) related to a specific entity or concept. This paradigm promotes code reusability, modularity, and scalability, making it an essential tool for building complex software systems.
In this example, person is an object with properties name and age, both of which are associated with values. The sayHello property is a function, also known as a method.
Constructors and Classes
In this example, Animal is a constructor function for creating generic animal objects. Dog is another constructor function that is designed to inherit properties from Animal using Object.create(Animal.prototype).
Encapsulation and Abstraction
Encapsulation is the practice of bundling data (attributes) and the methods that operate on that data together in a single unit, i.e., an object. This concept fosters modularity, as the internal workings of an object can be hidden from external code.
Polymorphism and Inheritance
Inheritance allows objects to inherit and override properties and methods from their parent objects, which enables the creation of hierarchies and promotes code reuse.