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Python: How to Run a Program - A Step-by-Step Guide

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Python: How to Run a Program - A Step-by-Step Guide



Python is a versatile and widely-used programming language known for its simplicity and readability. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced developer, knowing how to run a Python program is fundamental. In this guide, we will walk you through the steps to execute Python programs on various platforms. By the end, you will have a solid understanding of how to run Python programs on your computer.


1. Installing Python

Before running Python programs, you need to have Python installed on your system. Python can be downloaded from the official website (www.python.org) for all major operating systems, including Windows, macOS, and Linux. Ensure that you download the latest stable version compatible with your system.


2. Creating Your First Python Program

Let us start by creating a simple "Hello, World!" program, a traditional first program in programming tutorials.




# hello.py

print("Hello, World!")

Save this code in a file named "hello.py." Now, you are ready to run your first Python program!


3. Running Python Programs on Windows


On Windows, there are two primary methods to execute Python programs:


Method 1: Using Command Prompt

  • Open the Command Prompt by pressing Win + R, typing "cmd," and hitting Enter.
  • Navigate to the directory containing your "hello.py" file using the cd command. For example, if the file is on the desktop, type cd Desktop.
  • Run the Python script with the command: python hello.py. You should see "Hello, World!" printed on the screen.


Method 2: Using Python IDLE

  • Python IDLE is an Integrated Development and Learning Environment that comes bundled with Python on Windows. Search for "IDLE" in the Start menu and open it.
  • Go to File > Open and select your "hello.py" file.
  • Press F5 or go to Run > Run Module to execute the program.


4. Running Python Programs on macOS and Linux

On macOS and Linux, Python typically comes pre-installed. Follow these steps:


Method 1: Using Terminal

  • Launch the Terminal from the Applications > Utilities folder.
  • Navigate to the directory where "hello.py" is located using the cd command.
  • Run the Python script with the command: python3 hello.py (Python 3) or python hello.py (Python 2). Python 2 may not be pre-installed on some systems.


Method 2: Using an Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

  • You can use popular IDEs like Visual Studio Code, PyCharm, or Atom on macOS and Linux.
  • Open your preferred IDE, create a new Python file, and paste the "hello.py" code.
  • Run the script from the IDE by clicking the "Run" button or using a keyboard shortcut like F5.


5. Virtual Environments

Virtual environments are crucial for managing dependencies and isolating project-specific libraries. To create and activate a virtual environment:


Open your terminal or command prompt.

Install the virtualenv package using pip (Python's package manager) if you haven't already: pip install virtualenv.

Create a new virtual environment: virtualenv myenv.

Activate the virtual environment:

Windows: myenv\Scripts\activate

macOS/Linux: source myenv/bin/activate


6. Running Python Scripts in a Virtual Environment

Once the virtual environment is activated, you can run Python scripts as usual using the methods described earlier. The advantage is that the scripts will use the libraries installed within the virtual environment only.


7. Handling Command-Line Arguments

Python allows you to pass command-line arguments to your scripts. This enables greater flexibility and interactivity. To access command-line arguments:




# command_line_args.py

import sys


if __name__ == "__main__":

    args = sys.argv[1:]

    print("Command-line arguments:", args)

Run the script with additional arguments: python command_line_args.py arg1 arg2. The script will display the provided arguments.



You have now learned how to run Python programs on different platforms, create your first Python program, use virtual environments, and handle command-line arguments. These fundamental skills will serve as a solid foundation for your Python journey. Keep practicing, exploring new possibilities, and soon you will be proficient in Python development.

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